If you're getting into anti-debug and are an advanced hacker, reading this source code is amazing. Open Analysis Live! We use IDA Pro and the debugger to unpack a Loki malware sample from a packer that has a ton of anti-analysis, anti-debug, and ant-vm tricks. PUBG Mobile does check for debuggers. 3, DeusEx, Brinck, Fall out series, Duke Nukem) and ran into the annoying crash-at-breakpoint again. These tools also have debugging capabilities, which allow you to execute the most interesting parts of the malicious program slowly and under highly controlled conditions, so. • Use key analysis tools like IDA Pro, OllyDbg, and WinDbg • Overcome malware tricks like obfuscation, anti-disassembly, anti-debugging, and anti-virtual machine techniques • Use your newfound knowledge of Windows internals for malware analysis. pdf), Text File (. How To Defeat Anti-VM and Anti-Debug Packers With IDA Pro - Duration:. ida 경로의 android_server를 adb push로 밀어넣음 2. OllyDbg, IDA Pro Debugger, and WinDbg_x86 don't receive debug events for certain exceptions originating from 64-bit code. Anti-debugging techniques are a common method for protecting software applications. Success! Changing the register prevented the anti-tracing call from working, and the debugger ran the code to completion. simple 파일(ELF)을 windows 환경에서 IDA로 열기. x64dbg has an integrated, debuggable, ASM-like scripting language. Qué te ofrecemos. IDA Pro is a feature rich, cross-platform, multi-processor disassembler and debugger developed by Hex-Rays, a private organization independent of governmental agencies and stock market pressure. The parent process appears to handle debug event codes and performs an action for each event (for a list of all codes, see here). load psscor2 Load PSSCOR…. Mobile Application Security Encryption is an online encryption service for Internet companies and individual developers. The challenge was to find a password by reversing the binary, bypassing the anti-debugging techniques used. Invent with purpose, realize cost savings, and make your organization more efficient with Microsoft Azure’s open and flexible cloud computing platform. Of course, every debugging is exception driven. To install a featured add-on, click the blue +Install Theme or +Add. anti debugging free download. anti­analysis techniques in future malware samples. If you need kernel mode (ring 0) Anti-Anti-Debug, please see TitanHide. I will focus on IDA Pro and WinDbg, but I’ll explain how to achieve the same effect with other tools as well. However, if you're willing to implement a minimal windbg backend, you could extend uberstealth, which unfortunately I've never come to finish as a project (actually I think anti-debugging is a dead anyway, but that's another story ;-)). When the debugger is active, we will go to the disassembly of the IsDebuggerPresent. As always, there will be gamedata updates for the old-stable 1. WinDbg Extensions. In fact there are many anti-debugging tricks and each of them requires an appropriate reaction from the debugger, let’s start with something simple: we will make the IsDebuggerPresent function call always return zero. This article presents popular anti-debug techniques, starting from the simplest ones, and notes about how to neutralize them. From this window, select Memory and Handle Leak and click Next. * Stop Anti-Reversing Anti-reversing, like reverse engineering or coding in assembly, is an art form. IDA Python Script. Ansys software can uniquely simulate electromagnetic performance across component, circuit and system design, and can evaluate temperature, vibration and other critical mechanical effects. Having trouble showing that directory. * ELF anti-debugging/reversing patcher * * Published @ IOActive Labs Research blog: * IDA Pro Starter License 6. IDA Pro Advanced 6. It is a console program. If one can cause IDA to recognize a given piece of code as a chunk that has no corresponding function, then it analyzes it and promptly tosses out its analysis. Strings encryption. Senior Software Engineer / Reverse Engineer / Security Analyst / Penetration Tester / Ethical Hacker My technical skills and proficiencies include: ¬ Software. pdf), Text File (. They are used by commercial executable protectors, packers and malicious software, to prevent or slow-down the process of reverse-engineering. It hooks various functions in usermode to hide debugging. qira update. Anti-debugging: Because tools such as Microsoft Windbg, SoftIce, and dissemblers such as DataRescue‘s IDA Pro are so effective in analyzing deployed application code, software protection solutions normally deploy multiple anti-debugging tricks and techniques to prevent these tools from attaching to an application. anti debugging free download. 0x00 本文参考 本文主要是参考Anti-Debugging Skills In APK ,请读者先阅读此文,本文只是对其中的难点进行讲解和说明。 0x01 ida调试so原理 要理解反调试原理,首先要理解调试原理。有关如何使用ida调试so,请参考ida动态调试so,在init_array和JNI_ONLOAD处下断点。. the most comprehensive guide to analysis of malware, offering detailed. ptr From SentinelLm 7. If a piece of malware contains things like anti-debugging routines or anti-analysis mechanisms, you may want to perform a manual analysis. This summer FireEye’s FLARE team hosted its second annual Flare-On Challenge targeting reverse engineers, malware analysts, and security professionals. The FireEye Labs Obfuscated String Solver automatically extracts obfuscated strings from Windows executables and shellcode. PNF Software is the maker of JEB, the most powerful interactive Android app decompiler, built by and for security engineers. "Comprehensive, complete and with a history in the industry second to none. The Holy Grail: IDA-Pro Started as an Interactive Dis-Assembler, enabling user interaction with the disassembler's decisions. Stop Anti-Reversing. mov eax, large fs:30h I googled this, and it turns out it is some anti-debugging stuff but that's all I know. Hey guys Here is a Debug EBOOT and a T6mp_ps3f. After setting up remote debugging under IDA and supplying some random input to the binary we see a call to some code that was stored in executable memory. You will also be able to debug your samples in any debugger and disassembler. The plugin is composed of two files, the plugin itself and a dll which is injected into the debuggee as soon as the debugger attaches to the process. Hello everyone! In this post, I'm going to do my best to go in-depth regarding page faults, but do my best to speak English at the same time. Course Assessment Measures Labs: Accompanying each lecture will be a lab that will solidify understanding of the topic of the lecture. As a result, anti-debugging tricks are probably the most common feature of code intended to interfere with reverse-engineering (. Most of the anti-disassembling techniques are built around manipulating these instructions to trick IDA into thinking data as code and otherwise. It has the in-built command language , supports a number of executables formats for variety of processors and operating systems. 本文主要是参考Anti-Debugging Skills In APK ,请读者先阅读此文,本文只是对其中的难点进行讲解和说明。 0x01 ida调试so原理 要理解反调试原理,首先要理解调试原理。有关如何使用ida调试so,请参考ida动态调试so,在init_array和JNI_ONLOAD处下断点。. IDA plugins idastealth is specifically used for the anti-anti-debugging purpose and supports various anti-debugging techniques. We use IDA Pro and x64dbg to take a second look at Gootkit and determine how it uses files name checks to evade analysis. Such tools are SoftIce, a real mode debugger, IDA and W32dasm which are tools to disassemble an application. Anti Kernel Debugging Bypass. As a tester, I want to create functional test cases easily to perform the regressive test automatically against each new version of the BPM project. Time Travel Debugging, is a tool that allows you to record an execution of your process running, then replay it later both forwards and backwards. During Reconstruction, her parents were active in the Republican Party. 3, DeusEx, Brinck, Fall out series, Duke Nukem) and ran into the annoying crash-at-breakpoint again. You can sync views between Windbg and IDA Pro using qb-sync. Reversing in Action using IDA Pro: Now it is time to get in action with reversing and cracking our crackme [Reference 1]. Delphi 6 and 7 IDA signatures. dll(main module renames all dlls before injection), asho. So as to handle large. One known method are anti-anti tricks which circumvent the mentioned protection schemes. As I know that we can implement CRC or MD5 that can detect any changes or patches made in executable and inform us. Angr, qira & Pin vs. 0) we manually step-into each instruction and try to identify if the isDebuggerPresent function is being called. 5에서는 도킹(Docking) 방식으로 UI가 구성되어 있습니다. It hooks various functions to hide debugging. Once you have a remote debugging server running, IDA can communicate with the. It is now possible to map the purpose of the code blocks. REDIR: Automated Static Detection of Obfuscated Anti-Debugging Techniques Adam J. NtCreateThreadEx is a new API since Vista and it is very powerful. FOR610 training has helped forensic investigators, incident responders, security engineers, and IT administrators acquire the practical skills to examine malicious programs that target and infect Windows systems. When you load a module into the address space of a process usually via calling e. anti­analysis techniques in future malware samples. If it still does not work the app may implement anti-debugging mechanisms. • Use key analysis tools like IDA Pro, OllyDbg, and WinDbg • Overcome malware tricks like obfuscation, anti-disassembly, anti-debugging, and anti-virtual machine techniques • Use your newfound knowledge of Windows internals for malware analysis. ida这些调试工具其实都是使用ptrace进行的, ptrace有一个很重要的特定:. Here you can decide what you want to do. Bochs emulates the opcodes directly from your IDB in a Bochs VM with no OS. * Stop Anti-Reversing Anti-reversing, like reverse engineering or coding in assembly, is an art form. The original sample from Malware. hi ,man i have written a driver for a few days, that is , there is a Game Protection(named TP,which developed by Tencent , China), it calls KdDisableDebugger to disable kernel debugger , added, that routine will be called when TP at stage of initialize , and then , it will create a thread to check the system variable KdDebuggerEnabled and call KdDisableDebugger in a loop while the variable is. Debugging files on the three platforms IDA natively runs on (i. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. From there, we can. The detaching of the parent process is possible only after restoring all nanomites. anti-debug: Aimed at stopping debuggers from being attached to a process or making the application act differently if a debugger is detected. SoftICE, IDA Pro, and. · Anti-debugging for apps. ; Old anti-debugging code; Never beeps when traced, why is that ?;; Will lock up window if debug or grdb. Do any one can help me to lean this stuffs ? Any examples ? Thank you. Protected Mode Segmentation as a powerful anti-debugging measure The segmentation functionality has been present on the Intel processors since early stages of the CPU manufacturing. July 2015 Andreas Clementi. Automate IDA Pro using Python and IDC to help analyze malware more efficiently; Understand how to combat anti-debugging, including bypassing timing checks, Windows debugger detection and debugger vulnerabilities; Fool malware so it cannot detect what is running in your safe environment. The Information Security Office has distilled the CIS lists down to the most critical steps for your systems, with a particular focus on configuration issues that are unique to the computing environment at The University of Texas at Austin. October 22-23, 2016. Anti-Anti-Debug Library with Olly v1, Olly v2 and TitanEngine plugins. 19: 3,403: 04-13-2020 18:41. Android packers continue to increase their efforts to prevent reverse engineers and static analysis engines from understanding what's inside the package. Debugging and Unpacking Malicious Software. After debugging the binary, the logic to calculate co-ordinate can be rewritten. [Android] decompile APK + eclipse to debug SmalI June 21, 2015 lemycanh Leave a comment Never thought of APK decompiler is so convenient, and also can be modified to compile and run, this is easier than modifying the PE in win much, thanks to apktool and SmalI tools the author provides such a good tool. Hi, SetUnhandledExceptionFilter() Anti Debug Trick is frequently used, especially in Malware Applications. Here are some user stories. Preventing the application from being tampered with (‘anti-tamper’) is one of the most important tasks to consider when hardening a mobile banking or payment application. a static disassembler such as Hopper, radare2, Binary Ninja, or IDA Pro in static mode, will not expose data which is generated by malware at runtime. Identify the behaviors in an obfuscated binary that contains anti-debugging features; Examine compiled scripts; Examine malware that performs string obfuscation to resist static analysis; Use tools such as IDA Pro and OllyDbg to identify signs that a binary has been packed; Manually unpack a packed executable using several methods. txt in windbg directory and calling the script from windbg with $$>a. Open Firefox, then select the three, horizonal lines next to the profile icon. These are not as good because defeating VM detection is difficult enough. Search Search. Yeniden Merhabalar, Fırsat buldukça bir şeyler karalamaya çalışıyorum. If the VM is infected it can quickly be reverted to a clean snapshot to continue analysis. Familiar with IDA Pro and the development of plugins / scripting. CrimeWare and Anti Reverse Engineering Techniques Custom Packers/Encryption: – This screenshot comes from an encrypted dropper. It is a console program. IDA Dalvik debugger: tips and tricks – Hex Blog. ollytracegraph - Allows you to generate VCG-compatible function graphs much like the same functionality in IDA Pro. Bypass Anti Cheat. We cannot attach with a debugger to a process which is under the ring3 debugging. References: 1. The new version includes community contributions by the following awesome people: headline, SlidyBat, PerfectLaugh, quasemago, Technoblazed, InvexByte, TiBarification, Pelipoika, Peace-Maker, thewavelength. Here you can decide what you want to do. Load file into IDA Pro. And at the time of this posting, none of the anti-debugging plugins are ported to support the new API yet. Your email address will not be published. Basically every popular tool has an anti-anti-debugger utility. Open up the binary in IDA and wait like four to five minutes so that you can actually. The trick of course is to try to stop the person reversing the application. Note that only some basic patching is necessary to run the program in VirtualBox and Sandboxie. debug_line,. Digital-Forensics/Computer-Forensics/Dynamic-Analysis; Digital-Forensics/Computer-Forensics/Debugger; Digital-Forensics/Computer-Forensics/Anti-Reverse. Cool, Now its time to hop over to IDA. 디버깅 대상의 비트 수에 맞는 파일을 가상머신에 복사한다. Put breakpoint at thread entry (0x60000 in this case). It hooks various functions in usermode to hide debugging. Hex-Rays IDA v6+. 6 is the Dalvik debugger, which allows us to debug Dalvik binaries on the bytecode level. If one can cause IDA to recognize a given piece of code as a chunk that has no corresponding function, then it analyzes it and promptly tosses out its analysis. Debugging with AOSP 227. Also In crypto tab we find an anti-debug technique. But once loaded into IDA I get this: "C:\Program Files\IDA 7. November 16, 2017 The last technique we'll cover exploits IDA's perception of functions that are automatically labeled the adoption of anti-decompilation techniques will increase and evolve in the same vein as anti-debugging and anti-reversing have. org/mrexodia/titanhide. It hooks various functions to hide debugging. 3) * IDA Pro Demo 6. Debugging InfoJack. import binascii key = 0x3B1EE5F6B3D99FF7 #initial key to decrypt metadata. Anti-Debugging techniques are meant to ensure that a program is not running under a debugger, and in the case that it is, to change its behavior correspondingly. Debugging Existing Code 217. It hooks various functions in usermode to hide debugging. It sets EAX to 1 if the calling process is being debugged. You can sanitize by using IDA Pro as. Wells was born enslaved in Holly Springs, Mississippi in 1862. Hello everyone! In this post, I'm going to do my best to go in-depth regarding page faults, but do my best to speak English at the same time. The trick is specific to Wow64 processes. Programming Linux Anti-Reversing Techniques teaches the reader how to code and analyze well known anti-reversing techniques for Linux. As a tester, I want to create functional test cases easily to perform the regressive test automatically against each new version of the BPM project. Level: medium and advanced. Recently, we found a new Android rootnik malware which uses open-sourced Android root exploit tools and the MTK root scheme from the dashi root tool to gain root access on an Android device. It hooks various functions in usermode to hide debugging. exe into IDA with shellcode. regal though somewhat intolerant and impulsive. At the time of this writing, the NSA has just released a tool that seems like an open-source IDA Pro to me. Through complete cross-checking of all app files, it is ensured that an app can still work properly even if any file in it is modified or replaced. IDA Stealth 1. 0 Delphi 6 and 7 IDA signatures. * Stop Anti-Reversing Anti-reversing, like reverse engineering or coding in assembly, is an art form. Filter files. This is a 32-bit PE file. Among the most popular debugging tools are: the debugger built into the commercial IDA disassembler (for 32 and 64-bit code), the free WinDbg, and the free, and to my knowledge most popular debugger, OllyDbg, which allows tracing of the application in user mode (the one drawback of OllyDbg is that it is limited to 32-bit applications). It is difficult to protect against every single tool out there, but 99% of the time a finite set of tools will be used. Name * Email * Website. com says about UltraEdit: "With its clear layout and powerful project and work-space features, it can handle complex and sophisticated software-development projects. It is now possible to map the purpose of the code blocks. *Reverse Engineer REAL Hostile Code. In their implementation, Apate can handle 79 anti-debugging-related attack vectors. Identify the behaviors in an obfuscated binary that contains anti-debugging features; Examine compiled scripts; Examine malware that performs string obfuscation to resist static analysis; Use tools such as IDA Pro and OllyDbg to identify signs that a binary has been packed; Manually unpack a packed executable using several methods. The goal of this course is to provide a solid foundation in reverse engineering, which is crucial in understanding modern malware and crafting solutions for the remediation and prevention of cyber attacks. First layer The first layer of anti-analysis is the use of a packer. Press any key in blobrunner window to continue debugging and hit. * July 2018, updat. Although we will touch on many topics, it is presumed that the reader has a good knowledge of the following: 1. potential Anti-VM techniques; potential Anti-Debugging techniques; suspicious instructions, such as potential TEB and PEB access; Clear all colors; Here are two screenshots showing the GUI and an example of highlighted instructions and the supporting output after the script was executed. algorithms, hidden access passwords (e. Debugging InfoJack. IDA (1) IDA Appcall (1) idapython (1) IE 0 Day (1) Image tag (1) Information disclosure (1) Information Stealer (1) intellij (1) Java Bytecode (1) Java Bytecode Editor (1) JavaScript (3) JavaScript anti debugging (1) Joomla Privilege Escalation (1) Kazy (1) KeyGenMe (1) Kirjava's KGM2 (1) local files (1) LordPE (1) Malicious Applet (1. Learn how to root your Android phone and be able to modify your system. IDA Dalvik debugger: tips and tricks – Hex Blog. Debugging by brute force is the most commonly used technique. They showed that Apate outperforms other debuggers (IDA Pro, OllyDbg, and Immunity Debuggers) for anti-debugging detection. Phoenix TS Certified Training Centers. PRAISE FOR PRACTICAL MALWARE ANALYSIS "An excellent crash course in malware analysis. 3 (crash due an internal error) * ELF anti-debugging/reversing patcher * * Published @ IOActive Labs Research blog:. I'm not entirely sure if this is a deliberate anti-IDA trick or not, however I recently encounted a file which had the Virtual Size's of its. However, we can still observe what’s happening statically using our IDA dump. Windows 운영체제에 IDA 설치. Basic features •Full-featured debugging of DLL and EXE files (TitanEngine Community Edition) •32-bit and 64-bit Windows support from Windows XP to Windows 10. IDA Stealth is a plugin which aims to hide the IDA debugger from most common anti-debugging techniques. NET Framework 3. Thus, general apps can be easily transformed into malicious application through reverse engineering and analysis. I quickly fired up IDA Disassembler to disassemble it. Saturday (24th June) and Sunday (25th) Padiham will be buzzing with. IDA가 설치된 폴더 또는 IDA가 설치된 폴더\dbgsrv 폴더에 linux_server / linux_serverx64 파일을 복사하여 linux 운영체제에 붙여넣기. They showed that Apate outperforms other debuggers (IDA Pro, OllyDbg, and Immunity Debuggers) for anti-debugging detection. As I know that we can implement CRC or MD5 that can detect any changes or patches made in executable and inform us. There are many page fault related articles out there, but I've noticed they're either picking up from an imaginary somewhere (i. This is the most used trick by malware writers/anti-disassembly programs which create jumps into the same location + 1 or 2 bytes. Timeless debugging - qira. The arguments for the exception are the debug message string, and the length of the string. If a piece of malware contains things like anti-debugging routines or anti-analysis mechanisms, you may want to perform a manual analysis. Thus, general apps can be easily transformed into malicious application through reverse engineering and analysis. Loading stuff. Download IDA Signsrch for free. Anti-Debug: There is one interesting anti-debug trick, at the start, it saves PEB and uses BeingDebug value [PEB+2] in XOR decryption routine, outside of a debugger this value is 0 and adding 0 don’t cause any error, but if we try to add 1 (which is the value of [PEB+2] if the executable is. The easy way to get around these anti cheats would be to stop them from running, but 95% of the time, about 1-5 minutes into the game, you will be. Among the most popular debugging tools are: the debugger built into the commercial IDA disassembler (for 32 and 64-bit code), the free WinDbg, and the free, and to my knowledge most popular debugger, OllyDbg, which allows tracing of the application in user mode (the one drawback of OllyDbg is that it is limited to 32-bit applications). IDA Pro plug-in conversion of Luigi Auriemma's signsrch signature matching tool. IDA Pro must be one of the best reverse engineering tools. IDA view: anti-debugging techniques. History • OllyDbg was developed more than a decade ago • First used to crack software and to develop exploits • The OllyDbg 1. pdf - Free ebook download as PDF File (. Tools Used IDA Pro OllyDbg Cerbero Profiler Sample: Lab16-02. FOR610 training has helped forensic investigators, incident responders, security engineers, and IT administrators acquire the practical skills to examine malicious programs that target and infect Windows systems. First, it leverages IsBeingDebugged flag and NtGlobalFlags to detect debugger activity. As a result, anti-debugging tricks are probably the most common feature of code intended to interfere with reverse-engineering (and anti-disassembly constructs being the next most common). I will focus on IDA Pro and WinDbg, but I'll explain how to achieve the same effect with other tools as well. I won't consider different theories of building software protection, only practical examples. ollytracegraph - Allows you to generate VCG-compatible function graphs much like the same functionality in IDA Pro. Yorumunuzu Yazın. The FireEye Labs Obfuscated String Solver automatically extracts obfuscated strings from Windows executables and shellcode. This is the most used trick by malware writers/anti-disassembly programs which create jumps into the same location + 1 or 2 bytes. Prefer VirtualKD to other, userland-debugging techniques like Scylla, HideToolz, HideCon, et al. Anti-debugging techniques are a common method for protecting software applications. CLASS REQUIREMENTS. OALabs Malware Analysis Virtual Machine 16 July 2018 on Tutorials. ScyllaHide supports various debuggers with plugins:. The original sample from Malware. You need to pick the right tools for the job. If you want to use other formats, you may find this useful: Cloud Convert. The arguments for the exception are the debug message string, and the length of the string. 6 (you can use a newer version if you want but IDA Team doesn't recommend after v2. Load file into IDA Pro. WinDbg and IDA Debugger. · Anti-tampering for apps. Students should be comfortable with all of the topics listed under "The Ida BASIC Course. The Android application package file, APK file, can be easily decompiled using Android reverse engineering tools. In this post i will show you an anti-debug trick that i have recently found. Assembly powered by XEDParse and asmjit. Community-aware. x C++ library IDA signatures. As a C/C++ Developer - Anti Cheat you will be a part of a dedicated team of WePlay! Esports (Tournament Platform ( We create a platform that allows players to compete in various esports game disciplines (now it's CS: GO and Dota 2), and we are moving toward console platforms. Open Analysis Live! We use IDA Pro and the debugger to unpack a Loki malware sample from a packer that has a ton of anti-analysis, anti-debug, and ant-vm tricks. Security Professionals always need to learn many tools, techniques, and concepts to analyze sophisticated Threats and current cyber attacks. Reverse engineer document files. But if the except {} block was called, then a debugger isn’t present and the process is executing normally without being debugged. exe) Start debugging. 54: 70,786: 12-09 Simple debug logging (1 2) Dr. Here we are going to see some of the most important tools, books, Resources which is mainly using for Malware Analysis and Reverse Engineering. Furthermore, these anti cheats use anti-debugging techniques and also run memory integrity scans to make sure you have not modified any of the code of the anti cheat or the game being protected. As a result, anti-debugging tricks are probably the most common feature of code intended to interfere with reverse-engineering (. As the name of the challenge suggests, we will try to reverse it and will likely have to deal with anti-debugging measures in the executable. 3 The operational process of the JDWP debugger format. From this window, select Memory and Handle Leak and click Next. CISC 849 : CyberAnalytics Anti-debugging using traps • Set a trap flag and check whether it is still there • A debugger would “swallow” it Note: A good explanation of what this means is found here. HideFromDebugger A target appears to have no protection whatsoever, allowing debug attach, stepping, breakpoint, etc. 20: Anti Debugging using RDTSC (0) 2016. In anti-debugging, malware detects debuggers by searching for known indicators or artifacts used to implement core debugger functionalities, such as tracing, breakpoints, and hooking. With IDA Pro, the interactive disassembler, you live in a source code-optional world. Just download it and uncompress the DLL in the same OllyDbg's folder. Users can quickly integrate DEX overall encryption, DEX function encryption, DLL overall encryption [U3D mobile games], DLL function encryption [U3D mobile games], memory. Jan 19 th, 2015 6:23 pm. Quite often IDA users ask for a plugin or feature to hide the debugger from the application. 5 + SDK + FLAIR + IDS Util + addons. munin on Nov 16, and I like these approaches more than targeting specific heuristics in IDA/Hexrays because, on a good day for the obfuscator, you can make a. what does large means?? And what does fs:30 means?? I know about segmentation but I don't know when the fs register is used. anti-reverse-engineering-linux(1). Anti-reversing, like reverse engineering or coding in assembly, is an art form. As a tester, I want to create functional test cases easily to perform the regressive test automatically against each new version of the BPM project. The move to RegEx and profile While outdated in terms of the labs and operating system, there is no better text for introducing malware analysis to the uninitiated. Tools Used IDA Pro OllyDbg Cerbero Profiler Sample: Lab16-02. Introduction. Deep knowledge of Windows and its APIs. Signing up To sign up in webreg, follow the link above (current pointing to 2020 instance) and find a free slot (or the slot with your lab partner). Senior Software Engineer / Reverse Engineer / Security Analyst / Penetration Tester / Ethical Hacker My technical skills and proficiencies include: ¬ Software. This is a start pack/list with everything about iOS Hacking. Debugger core by TitanEngine Community Edition. Anti-debugging techniques are a common method for protecting software applications. Kernel debugger using Timeless Debugging method. Estén familiarizados con técnicas de debugging y anti-debugging. The backdoor code is defined as data by IDA When run, the binary first creates a thread as an anti-debugging watchdog whose sole purpose is to continuously check if a debugger is present. IDA has some stuff too like IDAStealth (I haven't used it since 2013ish so it might not be that effective any more). Write a keygen -> we will work on this. InfoJack terminates if it is run on an English device, potentially hindering reverse-engineering of the binary within a debugger or disassembler. This is a start pack/list with everything about iOS Hacking. We also have a Coding Cente. Ollydump is a plug-in is available for Ollydbg called Ollydump which can: Write a new executable from the unpacked data in memory; Change the OEP to one specified by the user; Attempt to reconstruct the imports table; Other Tools. Normally, you'd see the directory. data section set to an extremely large value, when IDA encountered a 100GB Virtual Size it refused to load the file due to lack of available disk space. You are then able to use the symbolic data that is provided from WinDbg to power debugging in IDA's GDB debugger. If you want to master the art and science of reverse engineering code with IDA Pro for security R&D or software debugging, this is the book for you. Estén familiarizados con IDA Pro y OLLY. $ file bin bin: PE32 executable (console) Intel 80386, for MS Windows $ Then analyze this file in IDA Pro. Solution would be to use VEH debugging feature from CE. Apate DNS Need. sys in IDA and try to determine the behavior via static analysis. Detecting presence of any of these should work as a neat anti-debug trick. When a critical area is reached, however, the debugger seems to not work at all - the breakpoint instruction and single-step exceptions (C0000003, C0000004) get passed right over the debugger and to the target, where it displays. The shellcode is also obfuscated (because of course it is), making IDA unable to automatically analyze it. 3) * IDA Pro Demo 6. It is a debugger and a disassembler that is so popular and advanced there are many papers focusing on specific areas of the capabilities available to the user. Deep knowledge of Windows and its APIs. Anti-reverse engineering ARM assembly, reverse engineering, decompiler Debugging Detailed design docs Device drivers IDA Pro plugin creation. ScyllaHide is an advanced open-source x64/x86 usermode Anti-Anti-Debug library. It is mostly used for DLL injection, but it can be used as an anti-debug trick aswell. Let's get started 1. Press Ctrl+G and enter the address of the TLS callback function, which you located via IDA Pro; set a breakpoint there and continue the analysis. dll libraries and after parameters checkings, it sends the corresponding message to the debugger ( makin. No Plagiarism. Review of reverse engineering (i. We will try and keep this up to date as much as we can but you should also always use the search function on iOSGods to find new topics. I executed it until it hit the breakpoint. In-class homework/Final project in a group of max 2 students; if not completed in-class, submit before Sun. The goal of this course is to provide a solid foundation in reverse engineering, which is crucial in understanding modern malware and crafting solutions for the remediation and prevention of cyber attacks. 3 IDA Stealth is a plugin which aims to hide the IDA debugger from most common anti-debugging techniques. To circumvent analysis, malware applies a variety of anti-debugging techniques, such as self-modifying, checking for or removing breakpoints, hijacking keyboard and mouse events, escaping the debugger, etc. The Android application package file, APK file, can be easily decompiled using Android reverse engineering tools. Some research lead meto a discussion at xda-developers about Android debugging through the remotedebugging functionality in IDA. If you have any questions or problems, make a Help & Support topic. Drop IDAPython folders into good IDA install dirs Make your bochs image with bximage. Angr, qira & Pin vs. 분석할 apk 선택. Preventing the application from being tampered with (‘anti-tamper’) is one of the most important tasks to consider when hardening a mobile banking or payment application. Loading up the malware in a debugger (IDA Free 5. 3) Stealth: An open-source anti-debugger plug-in which tries to hide the IDA Pro from most common anti-debugging techniques. Next, you will explore analysis techniques using real-world tools such as IDA Pro and x86dbg. Unfortunately, for IDA 7. together with Aguila, guy behind Scylla, we made a new Hiding plugin for Olly1&2, TitanEngine and IDA Pro 6. IsDebuggerPresent checks for the BeingDebugged flag in the PEB (Process Environment Block) and will return a non-zero value if it is indeed being debug. dll and ttdwriter. This is a start pack/list with everything about iOS Hacking. I'm not entirely sure if this is a deliberate anti-IDA trick or not, however I recently encounted a file which had the Virtual Size's of its. As always, there will be gamedata updates for the old-stable 1. UI가 깔끔해졌더군요. ScyllaHide is an advanced open-source x64/x86 usermode Anti-Anti-Debug library. There will be pomp and ceremony galore as Padiham goes on parade and turns the clock back to remember the wartime spirit that saw Britain through the Second World War. simple 파일(ELF)을 windows 환경에서 IDA로 열기. dll are always loaded into a debugged process; others are helper libraries & may not be present in a debuggee's address space; need to run more tests). For example, in the code above the malware hides the current thread from the debugger. Basic features •Full-featured debugging of DLL and EXE files (TitanEngine Community Edition) •32-bit and 64-bit Windows support from Windows XP to Windows 10. 22 Feb 24 Anti-Disassembly 23 Feb 27 Anti-Debugging 24 Mar 1 Anti-Virtual-Machine Techniques 25 Mar 3 Packers and Unpacking 26 Mar 13 Shellcode Analysis 27 Mar 15 C++ Analysis 28 Mar 17 Catch-up Class 29 Mar 20 Kernel Debugging. In fact there are many anti-debugging tricks and each of them requires an appropriate reaction from the debugger, let's start with something simple: we will make the IsDebuggerPresent function call always return zero. Working with WinDbg is kind of pain in the ass and I never remember all the commands by heart, so I write down the commands I used. The int 2d anti-debugging technique is essentially an application of OS finger printing, i. IsDebuggerPresent checks for the BeingDebugged flag in the PEB (Process Environment Block) and will return a non-zero value if it is indeed being debug. Curiously enough, the example falls into the realm of anti-disassembling and not really into anti-debugging. Jan 19 th, 2015 6:23 pm. It hooks various functions in usermode to hide debugging. The plugin is composed of two files, the plugin itself and a dll which is injected into the debuggee as soon as the debugger attaches to the process. Delphi signatures 1. Ansys provides a model-based embedded software development and simulation environment with a built-in automatic code generator to. Invent with purpose, realize cost savings, and make your organization more efficient with Microsoft Azure’s open and flexible cloud computing platform. It is mostly used for DLL injection, but it can be used as an anti-debug trick aswell. There will be pomp and ceremony galore as Padiham goes on parade and turns the clock back to remember the wartime spirit that saw Britain through the Second World War. Hex-Rays IDA Pro Advanced 6. Windows 운영체제에 IDA 설치. Wells is an African American civil rights advocate, journalist, and feminist. As you progress through the chapters, you will walk through use cases encountered in reverse engineering, such as encryption and compression, used to obfuscate code, and how to to identify and overcome anti-debugging and anti-analysis tricks. In this post i will show you a new anti-debug trick that affects many debuggers e. 16 is a bugfix release in the Python 2. Prefer VirtualKD to other, userland-debugging techniques like Scylla, HideToolz, HideCon, et al. Debug Print Debugger Detection Overview. It is a console program. Protected Mode Segmentation as a powerful anti-debugging measure The segmentation functionality has been present on the Intel processors since early stages of the CPU manufacturing. IDA Quick Reference; WinDBG x86 Cheat Sheet; Finally, many capture the flag challenges will make use of anti-debugging and anti-disassembly techniques to hide or obfuscate the goal. Introduction. Disassembly powered by Zydis. Select Generate final userdump after n minutes of. import binascii key = 0x3B1EE5F6B3D99FF7 #initial key to decrypt metadata. Among the most popular debugging tools are: the debugger built into the commercial IDA disassembler (for 32 and 64-bit code), the free WinDbg, and the free, and to my knowledge most popular debugger, OllyDbg, which allows tracing of the application in user mode (the one drawback of OllyDbg is that it is limited to 32-bit applications). The IDA pro debugger version 5. debuggers offer a debug support interface at its top level. software reversing) tools. Ghidra is a software reverse engineering (SRE) framework developed by NSA's Research Directorate for NSA's cybersecurity mission. e a rushed explanation that seems to begin and end abruptly), incomplete, assume you're already knowledgeable (even basic. So we will have to deal with this common anti-debugging technique. Various debugging and analysis tools such as APKTool, dex2jar and JEB are blocked from debugging an app statically or dynamically. Anti-IDA trick. Debugging Native Code 221. Developed actively by Ilfak Guilfanov, who is the main developer at Hex-Rays, IDA Pro is one of the best, if not the best disassembler available on the market. anti-debug: Aimed at stopping debuggers from being attached to a process or making the application act differently if a debugger is detected. Next, you will get to grips with obfuscation and anti-disassembly, anti-debugging, as well as anti-virtual machine techniques. 0 and up, there is a change in IDA Python API. – It was first used by a Windows Worm – I have seen Trojans using this encrypted dropper – Easy enough to be handled from IDA with a generic IDC script. Wells wrote about these true Southern Horrors with such cool-headedness, such deadpan This book is an investigative and journalistic look at lynching, from back when lynch law was a common thing (people were getting lynched, I mean burned alive, I mean hanged, I mean littered with bullets, and then pulled apart for souvenirs of this. * July 2018, updated to IDA 7. diffsnake - Differential debugging for OllyDbg. , from the behaviors of a system to tell its version and configuration. org macOS installers ship with builtin copies of OpenSSL and Tcl/Tk 8. ru # a bit more about myself # have over 15 years of software engineering and reverse engineering experience (CD/DVD protections, PE/ELF packers/protectors, CD/DVD copiers), data flow optimization, CPU-specific optimization, compiler specific optimization, debugging code and. You are then able to use the symbolic data that is provided from WinDbg to power debugging in IDA's GDB debugger. This is "the next step" in the evolution of packers. And at the time of this posting, none of the anti-debugging plugins are ported to support the new API yet. Description. " Topics to be covered in this course include signature creation with FLIRT, scripting with Python, plugin, loader, and processor module development, batch mode usage, advanced Ida debugger usage, dealing with obfuscated code, and anti-debugging. debug_str) which are necessary to crash gdb: * ->sh_name is a relative offset to shstrtab_section->sh_offset * So, it'll be pointing to statinfo. Filter files. Stress Test Anti Malware System al-khaser is a PoC malware with good intentions that aims to stress your anti-malware system. Increasing Automation 233. The quickest way is to look at the string directly and find the key code according to password is wrong. It also contains some anti-debugging tricks, in case you were thinking to throw it in a debugger. Advantages and disadvantages, alternative solutions. Cool, Now its time to hop over to IDA. Have you executed the on-device IDA debugger with root permissions (via su)? Without root permissions native debugging will not work. Estén familiarizados con IDA Pro y OLLY. Anti Ban offset: 0x50B9C4 set: 0x48, 0x00 Credit: Eddie Mac SC58. IDA Pro is a debugger A debugger is a computer program that assists in the detection and correction of errors in other computer programs. These tricks can simply detect the presence of the debugger, disable the debugger, escape from the. Jump Instructions to a location with constant value. K0188: Knowledge of malware analysis tools (e. 메뉴 - Debugger - Process Options. Fallout: New Vegas - Item ID Codes Fallout New Vegas (PC) Console ID Codes for Items by Dave (eperb12 | Google Mail) _____ A C T I V A T I O N _____ Create a shortcut to the game executable (this. The debugging servers are intended to execute along-side the binary that you intend to debug. After debugging the binary, the logic to calculate co-ordinate can be rewritten. Exception Driven "Debugging": Getting behind anti debugging tricks. Now that we know how a breakpoint is encoded we can start looking for them! Because the breakpoint is encoded as a single byte, all we need to do is look for that byte. How To Defeat Anti-VM and Anti-Debug Packers With IDA Pro - Duration:. OllyDbg is a 32-bit assembler level analysing debugger for Microsoft ® Windows ®. Strings encryption. exe 파일이 존재한다. I quickly fired up IDA Disassembler to disassemble it. Disassembly powered by Zydis. Furthermore, these anti cheats use anti-debugging techniques and also run memory integrity scans to make sure you have not modified any of the code of the anti cheat or the game being protected. 3) Stealth: An open-source anti-debugger plug-in which tries to hide the IDA Pro from most common anti-debugging techniques. 54: 70,786: 12-09 Simple debug logging (1 2) Dr. and they do a great job against standard anti-debug tricks found in “anti. It's been quite a while I analyzed malware last time, so I decided to refresh my knowledge and write a short post on common x86 malware anti-debugging techniques. x64dbg has an integrated, debuggable, ASM-like scripting language. The malware had a number of anti-debugging techniques employed that made it difficult to unpack and my friend was in a desperate rush to create solid host-based indicators for the malware. – Robert Apr 26 '19 at 17:30. Reversing Malware with IDA pro Once the malware is unpacked, static analysis is typically much easier. Highly organized and sophisticated criminal entities are constantly developing more complex, obfuscated, and armored viruses, worms, Trojans, and botnets. Sentinel Lm. And at the time of this posting, none of the anti-debugging plugins are ported to support the new API yet. Often reversers use IDA for static and Olly for dynamic analysis, but with IDA’s debugging capabilities makes it one stop tool for all that is required for reversing. BIN has Anti Ban in it, But like always there is no promise that you can't get banned. We use IDA to open it. The easy way to get around these anti cheats would be to stop them from running, but 95% of the time, about 1-5 minutes into the game, you will be. PoC 1 - Tracing. As part of the Burnley Armed Forces Covenant, Veterans and others have come together again this year to organise the popular 1940s weekend. Course Assessment Measures Labs: Accompanying each lecture will be a lab that will solidify understanding of the topic of the lecture. It sets EAX to 1 if the calling process is being debugged. Tools Used IDA Pro OllyDbg Cerbero Profiler Sample: Lab16-02. In-class homework/Final project in a group of max 2 students; if not completed in-class, submit before Sun. data section set to an extremely large value, when IDA encountered a 100GB Virtual Size it refused to load the file due to lack of available disk space. NtQuery / ScyllaHide — Bitbucket It has plugins for the most common debuggers or you can just inject the DLL before injecting your hack and it will disable lots of anti-debug measures. Overview Debugging files on the three platforms IDA natively runs on (i. such file can be easily loaded into IDA Pro, disassembled and researched. Malware reverse engineering involves deep analysis of the code, structure, and functionality of malicious software. In fact there are many anti-debugging tricks and each of them requires an appropriate reaction from the debugger, let's start with something simple: we will make the IsDebuggerPresent function call always return zero. Categories:. They showed that Apate outperforms other debuggers (IDA Pro, OllyDbg, and Immunity Debuggers) for anti-debugging detection. Reverse engineering or software reversing, is a set of techniques use to analyze closed source software in order to extract seemingly unavailable information, e. If it still does not work the app may implement anti-debugging mechanisms. Most of the anti-disassembling techniques are built around manipulating these instructions to trick IDA into thinking data as code and otherwise. She popularized the idea of machine-independent. Bypassing GTA5's Anti-Debug - Grand Theft Auto V Hacks and Cheats Forum UnKnoWnCheaTs In case you want the image base to be 140000000 (like in IDA), you have to. scientific but not academical overview of malware anti-debugging, ida stealth bruteforcing. There is tons of obfuscated code in the VM which causes IDA to have trouble analyzing it. You can sync views between Windbg and IDA Pro using qb-sync. Debugger core by TitanEngine Community Edition. Phoenix TS Certified Training Centers. K0189: Knowledge of malware with virtual machine detection (e. As you progress through the chapters, you will walk through use cases encountered in reverse engineering, such as encryption and compression, used to obfuscate code, and how to to identify and overcome anti-debugging and anti-analysis tricks. Reversing in Action using IDA Pro: Now it is time to get in action with reversing and cracking our crackme [Reference 1]. exe "proceeds" through the program !!;; This program may not work because from the comments it uses global debug settings, ; and XP needs local ones at least in native windows. The Debugger is insane as well as the protections. I executed it until it hit the breakpoint. Techniques here do not include obfuscation like false branches, spaghetti code etc. Greenland pushed back to the reports that Donald Trump had floated the possibility of the United States purchasing the autonomous territory from Denmark. Truly amazing. It is necessary to restart OllyDbg in order to work with this plugin. Delphi signatures 1. There is no absolute way to prevent these tools from being used to reverse engineer an application, but it can make the process more difficult by combining multiple anti. 0M 2008 JFF Solution silly1 [hahah]. After seven years of development, Avast open-sources its machine-code decompiler for platform-independent analysis of executable files. The new stable branch of SourceMod is now 1. However, we can still observe what's happening statically using our IDA dump. py) from the PyHiew package. dll hooks several functions at ntdll. As a C/C++ Development Team Lead (Anti-Cheat)you will be a part of a dedicated team of WePlay! Esports (Tournament Platform ( We create a platform that allows players to compete in various esports game disciplines (now it's CS: GO and Dota 2), and we are moving toward console platforms. sys in IDA and try to determine the behavior via static analysis. To disassemble a program is to take the machine code and transform it into assembly language, which is marginally more readable. ScyllaHide v2019-05-24 releases: advanced open-source x64/x86 usermode Anti-Anti-Debug library. It sets EAX to 0 if the calling process is not being debugged. What we are concerned about is the latter which is used in IDA Pro and sometime gamed by malware authors-1. exe, through which access to the DLL can be obtained. dll hooks several functions at ntdll. Put breakpoint at thread entry (0x60000 in this case). NET\Framework\v2. We will try and keep this up to date as much as we can but you should also always use the search function on iOSGods to find new topics. These tricks can simply detect the presence of the debugger, disable the debugger, escape from the. We use IDA Pro and x64dbg to take a second look at Gootkit and determine how it uses files name checks to evade analysis. In the previous tutorial, we've talked about techniques that harden the reverse engineering of the executable and then we looked at anti-debugging techniques. It supports many basic and advanced features to ease debugging on Windows. anti-debug: Aimed at stopping debuggers from being attached to a process or making the application act differently if a debugger is detected. In early June, FortiGuard Labs found a new variant of the Android rootnik malware that disguises itself as a legal app. Note that only some basic patching is necessary to run the program in VirtualBox and Sandboxie. (note: I have not explored it enough yet, but it would seem that ttdrecordcpu. Just to confirm my analysis and because I was curious about debugging PE32 binaries with winedbg on my Debian workstation, I debugged the program using winedbg and it worked like a charm. Anti-debugging techniques are ways for a program to detect if it runs under control of a debugger. In this post i will show you an anti-debug trick that i have recently found. We run it directly and will ask for password. Review Questions. x64dbg has many features thought of or implemented by the reversing community. Delphi 6 and 7 IDA signatures. Description. IDA Pro's interactive interface and programmable development language provide you with complete control over code disassembly and debugging. Debugging FlexiSPY requires the researcher to configure IDA to connect first to services. It is a debugger and a disassembler that is so popular and advanced there are many papers focusing on specific areas of the capabilities available to the user. In this post, I will show how to leverage strings that FLOSS decoded when reverse engineering malware using IDA Pro and debugging it using x64dbg. Rock4 v2 ptr Rockey4 v2. Disassembly powered by Zydis. If you need kernelmode (ring0) Anti-Anti-Debug please see TitanHide https://bitbucket. x C++ library IDA signatures. You see, it is releasing the code for its machine-code decompiler on GitHub. OutputDebugString, and other functions like it, effectively causes an exception to be raised (DBG_PRINTEXCEPTION_C or 0x40010006) which Windows catches. The original SoftICE for DOS was written in 1987 by NuMega founders Frank Grossman and Jim Moskun. But after a bit of searching I found a great resource on how to set that up:. Anti-debugging techniques exist both for the Dalvik and native code (e. It sold for $386. It hooks various functions in usermode to hide debugging. References: 1. She popularized the idea of machine-independent. Click a lecture name to see it on SlideShare. It is necessary to restart OllyDbg in order to work with this plugin. In software analysis – as in real life – things are rarely simple and obvious. Symbolic Analysis With angr. I will focus on IDA Pro and WinDbg, but I’ll explain how to achieve the same effect with other tools as well. ScyllaHide is an advanced open-source x64/x86 user mode Anti-Anti-Debug library. You can start on a new file(New), Work on your own(Go), or open an existing/old project. There is tons of obfuscated code in the VM which causes IDA to have trouble analyzing it. In this blog I post my current investigations about virii, cracking, hacking and reversing. The last part is Advanced Static Analysis. Hex-Rays IDA v6+. Until this point, DEX2JAR, Smali and some other tools had been sufficient formy Android reversing requirements. 0! Generic Mac OS X protector is found? News Little Snitch continued or the broken nib files!. This is what causes the Segmentation Fault: 11 when trying to attach to an app. Ghidra’s disassembly and assembly don’t appear to be paired. Malware analysis uses debuggers to understand and manipulate the behaviors of stripped binaries. One known method are anti-anti tricks which circumvent the mentioned protection schemes. For those who want to stay ahead of the latest malware, Practical Malware Analysis will teach you the tools and techniques used by professional analysts. Let's dig in ladies and gentlemen. IDA Pro has a memory dump feature. The plugin is composed of two files, the plugin itself and a dll which is injected into the debuggee as soon as the debugger attaches to the process. The general idea is that debuggers, such as gdb, utilize the ptrace() function to attach to a process at runtime. Techniques Windows API methods: IsDebuggerPresent CheckRemoteDebuggerPresent NtQueryInformationProcess. This is the most used trick by malware writers/anti-disassembly programs which create jumps into the same location + 1 or 2 bytes. And at the time of this posting, none of the anti-debugging plugins are ported to support the new API yet. IDA Dalvik debugger: tips and tricks – Hex Blog. How To Defeat Anti-VM and Anti-Debug Packers With IDA Pro - Duration:. Debugging an Example App 213. 0 GUI Highlighted instructions and output. Disassembler and debugger: OllyDbg and IDA Pro Freeware can parse compiled Windows executables and, acting as disassemblers, display their code as assembly instructions. The tool integrates with various reverse engineering tools including IDA Pro, radare2, and x64dbg. As you progress through the chapters, you will walk through use cases encountered in reverse engineering, such as encryption and compression, used to obfuscate code, and how to to identify and overcome anti-debugging and anti-analysis tricks. Defeating anti-debugging and associated bad behavior just takes too-much work in userland. the Interactive DisAssembler (IDA) being the next most common). Qué te ofrecemos. The injected dll is actually responsible for implementing most of the stealth techniques either by hooking syscalls or by patching some flags. Next, you will get to grips with obfuscation and anti-disassembly, anti-debugging, as well as anti-virtual machine techniques. Now, note: this will only work for any breakpoints set prior to execution, seeing as we look for. {"code":200,"message":"ok","data":{"html":". Running the strings command on this malware doesn't give a clue about its intent. Android packers continue to increase their efforts to prevent reverse engineers and static analysis engines from understanding what's inside the package. It hooks various functions in usermode to hide debugging. ida 경로의 android_server를 adb push로 밀어넣음 2. WinDbg Extensions. The quickest way is to look at the string directly and find the key code according to password is wrong. It supports many basic and advanced features to ease debugging on Windows. IDA is a Windows, Linux or Mac OS X hosted multi-processor disassembler and debugger that offers so many features it is hard to describe them all. There is tons of obfuscated code in the VM which causes IDA to have trouble analyzing it. Hello everyone! In this post, I'm going to do my best to go in-depth regarding page faults, but do my best to speak English at the same time. Note that only some basic patching is necessary to run the program in VirtualBox and Sandboxie. You can even debug right from within IDA pro, if you want to run certain sections of code to see what it will actually do. 9 branch for a while. 6) - Python 2. Alternatively there's an extension " pykd " that can used to run python scripts to automate various repetitive tasks while debugging. Now that we know how a breakpoint is encoded we can start looking for them! Because the breakpoint is encoded as a single byte, all we need to do is look for that byte. Anti-Reverse-Engineering 15: Anti-Disassembly KEY 16: Anti-Debugging 17: Anti-Virtual Machine Techniques 18: Packers and Unpacking Special Topics 19: Shellcode Analysis 20: C++ Analysis 21: 64-Bit Malware.